The Aeronauts Release UTorrent Verified Website





creator: Tom Harper / genres: Adventure, Drama / Release date: 2019 / 11090 Votes / Synopsis: The Aeronauts is a movie starring Felicity Jones, Eddie Redmayne, and Himesh Patel. Pilot Amelia Rennes (Felicity Jones) and scientist James Glaisher (Eddie Redmayne) find themselves in an epic fight for survival while attempting to / 7,3 / 10. The aeronauts film. I love this, this looks just so current and funny It's true phones are just part of our lives If I had a date, I would leave my phone home. And cuddle late during Cupcake Wars.

Finally a trailer that doesn't spoil the movie. The aeronautics.

This trailer gave me chills. N

The aeronauts cast. I've watched it and a lot of the scenes remind me of Spongebob and Patrick messing around with Sandy's rocket thinking everyone in Bikini's Bottom is alien. Especially when they see Squidward in his bed, D. The aeronauts movie rotten tomatoes. Télécharger le film Les Aéronautes (The Aeronauts) en WEB-DL - FRENCH. 1 heures 41 minutes Acteurs Eddie Redmayne / Tim McInnerny Felicity Jones Directeur(s) Tom Harper Genre(s) Aventure Drame Romance Date de Sortie Monday, November 4, 2019 Titre Original The Aeronauts Langue Originale Anglais Bande Annonce Cliquer pour voir Qualité(s) WEB-DL Langue(s) FRENCH Hébergeurs MixDrop, GoUnlimited, Uptobox, 1Fichier, Rapidgator, NitroFlare, Turbobit, Uploaded Qualités également disponibles pour ce film Synopsis Au 19e siècle, une pilote de montgolfière un scientifique s'embarquent dans les airs pour découvrir les secrets du paradis. Alors qu'ils vont plus haut dans l'atmosphère que n'importe quel ballon auparavant et font d'incroyables découvertes, ils en viennent à se battre pour leur survie.

The aeronauts behind the scenes.


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Page Transparency See More Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. See actions taken by the people who manage and post content. Page created - December 12, 2012. Tom, you're almost 60 years old. You gotta stop doing batshit crazy stunts Maybe so, sir. But not today. The aeronauts trailer 2019. The aeronauts rotten tomatoes. The aeronauts full movie. Up up and away in my beautiful balloon.


The aeronautical. This movie was good. not great, but still had its moments. Sure, the science is a bit lacking (when the balloon hits an air pocket at starts falling, it doesn't magically just stop like it hit the ground) but the script is still well written and the cinematography quite good.
It's based off two different real people that had nothing to do with each others. The incels are mad that a woman (gasp! took the place of a man. But the woman was an actual aeronaut; Coxwell was replaced by well-known aeronaut Sophie Blanchard.
This, like almost every other "based-off" movie, is just a lose representation. It's still a good movie and never meant to be historically accurate.

This movie was awesome. Just superb acting, too.
Great way they told the story and had me on the edge of my seat the entire movie.
Many W T F ! moments.
Winner. 2:13 tom cruise 😎🍺🍻 btw Amazon makes min >7/10 👏👏👏. The aeronauts movie. The aeronauts amazon prime. In memory of Rip Torn please say: “Is it necessary for me to drink my own urine? No, but I do it anyway because it's sterile and I like the taste.”.

I'm getting anxiety from this trailer. The aeronauts movie review. The aeronaut's windlass. The aeronauts story. The aeronauts ending scene. [Photo] Wikimedia Commons IT'S THE END OF AUTUMN IN YOSEMITE VALLEY, and I'm standing atop a block of golden granite—the belay, I hope, for a new route. Some of the features look familiar to me from years of climbing on these same cliffs. I know these kinds of crystals, dikes and diorite knobs; this golden polish; the shape of the cracks and where they tend to hide; the manzanita, bay and oak trees, their habits and their places; the white-throated swifts—what a lovely name, Aeronautes saxatalis, rock aeronauts. and what company they've kept me since my earliest climbs, they and their cousins. The climbing goes remarkably well, though it takes most of the day. The route is like a code written before us in edges and cracks, corners and roofs, in the textures of surfaces and the grip of features. Each time my partner Eric has trouble deciphering it, the solution is simply to go up. It's a golden line, of moderate difficulty, beautifully textured with edges and bumps, with friction where you need it. Gradually, these features give way to cracks and gnarled forms meant for a climber's hand: incuts, plates, knurls. As the day wanes, a peregrine falcon glides around the cliff at my height, maybe ten feet away. Surprised as I am, the bird stops its glide and retreats out of sight around my skyline. And then, as if curious, it returns a little farther out, a bit higher, and makes a few passes. I feel the magic of being part of the falcon's world, even if for only a moment. When Eric stops to drill a bolt, my mind wanders to thoughts of the falcon hunting swifts, the swifts hunting insects, the insects hunting other insects or plants, the plants turning sunlight into starches. I wonder at the marvelous improbability of making a living entirely off the wilderness, as those animals and plants all do—how close the margins of survival are played. An hour before the sun sinks below the horizon, Eric calls for me. I wouldn't have missed what followed for almost anything at that point. A joyful ascent, with interesting moves, nothing very hard, up and up and up. A laugh every once and awhile as my body is levitated by some sequence of moves that needs no thought to execute; just climbing. The collection of such experiences defines each of our lives, like blazes along a trail that mark a unique path in space and time from our beginning to our end. Understanding nature's conjuring has always been a part of my intellectual adventures. Since I was very young, my curiosity has led me to seek a few answers to the questions of how that magic works. Eventually, I became a physicist studying arcane features of the universe. Debbie, my wife, is a gardener, a plant biologist and a restoration ecologist. Her passion is learning about plant communities, putting disturbed ecologies back together, and teaching these lessons to the next generation. Our dinner discussions frequently revolve around my pursuit of climbing and her interest in wild habitats. On that same wonderful pitch, the complex web of biological relationships spans all the way from mega-fauna and -flora to the ubiquitous single-cell organisms. There is no real hierarchy of life: we are all survivors of its 3. 6 billion-year history on earth. The vast majority of species that once existed are now extinct. Our limestone cliffs are created out of the skeletons of untold numbers of marine creatures. To get there, we are propelled by petroleum produced by the decomposition of countless more organisms. The legacy of life's existence on the planet provides for our recreation. A steep, crackless face is a habitat for only the most hardy—at least to our eyes. We perceive the lichen, the mosses. What climbers know of them is that they create a treacherous covering of holds for hands and feet. We can also see the trail we make. Viewed in a satellite image, a route like The Nutcracker appears as a pale streak on the mottled cliff. The 1967 first ascent by Royal and Liz Robbins used only nuts for protection, making a bold statement about "clean climbing. Today, the original route is gone—transformed and polished by forty-six seasons of passers-by. I've done the climb about once a year for the last fifteen years. The mystery that veiled the first ascent has vanished. Something else is missing that we don't readily notice: the reason for that white line seen from space. "GARDENING ON FIRST ASCENTS IS A CONTROVERSIAL DINNER TOPIC at my home. Climbers define this term in the opposite way that most gardeners would. Imagine explaining to a plant biologist the activity of completely cleaning out a crack, removing all the vegetation, and then excavating the soil—merely to generate another climb in a place with more than 2, 000 routes existing. When I assert that there are plenty of other places for plants to grow, Debbie responds, How do you know what it was you 'gardened' out of the cracks. She's aware that plant identification is not one of my strengths. I admit that I don't know, but I suggest that the ecology of this much-visited park must be well researched. She replies, We know relatively little, and especially about the cliffs. " In Cliff Ecology: Pattern and Process in Cliff Ecosystems, Douglas W. Larson, Uta Matthes and Peter E. Kelly describe cliffs as unique niches, largely because they are inaccessible to most humans. At times, these sites offer a last refuge for species displaced from the flatlands. The nuances of what constitutes a livable space often escape our eyes. While we notice the lichen and the moss, we don't see the endolithic organisms that live in the fine cracks of the rock matrix below the surface. Depending on the type of stone, the sun's rays might penetrate deep enough so that unknown "cryptoendolithic photoautotrophs" can exist by converting light to biomass. These biological communities change the way the rock appears, creating a black or brown varnish that's usually a couple of sheets of paper thick. The passage of many climbers wears through this thin layer and leaves the stone looking "clean" in places where our feet and hands have carved their unintentional petrogylphs. Ironically, the Robbins' clean first ascent of The Nutcracker may have resulted in the unforeseen destruction of this varnish—the result of thousands to tens of thousands of years' activity of multitudes of invisible inhabitants. FOR MANY OF US, OUR CLIMBING IS A LIFE-DEFINING PASSION. We venture into that wild seeking a path into the unknown. Along the way, we seek to "improve" that path, removing from that niche something that the other lives there depended upon, perhaps denying the last individuals of a particular species the resources needed for their survival. We don't fully know yet what damage we are doing. And thus we also take away the possibility of understanding what we did. At best, we attempt the most minimal impact, yet that approach has risks too. Eric once tried to establish a new route in Yosemite without extensive gardening. As he stemmed up a corner to avoid the vegetation, the climbing became more difficult. He brought his right foot high onto a horizontal weakness and attempted to stand up. A pop sounded in the back of his leg. Surprised, but not in pain, he pushed harder. After another pop, his leg collapsed, and he fell. With his partner's help, he was able to self-rescue and hobble back to his car, but it took him six months to recover from what turned out to be two snapped hamstrings. Eric, our friend Linda and I later put up another climb in that same part of Yosemite, along a section of cliff encased in moss and soil. Eric leads the pitch, cleaning the crack where he needs to. Linda and I, in turn, ascend the new pitch, and do a more-extensive job. Now well scrubbed, with anchors installed on top, it's available for those waiting to do another popular route. When the time came to name it, I suggested, Don't Tell Debbie. There is no best compromise, I've realized. All new routes represent a matter of taking something. The question becomes: Is it worth it? ONCE AGAIN, ERIC AND I ARE IN AN UNCLIMBED CORNER, high above Yosemite Valley's floor. The sun shines across a mile of mostly untouched granite. A breeze cools us. Climbs in this area are sparse. There might be one route to our west, put up in 1963, but I've found no details about it. What a pleasure and a privilege to encounter places no one has ever been. It's not just about the climbing, at least for me; there is something about being there. The scent of a bay tree, the pungent smell of angry ants, the swoop of falcons, the aerobatics of the swifts, the Dudleya flowering in some impossible crevice. All these things are important too, and on some days, they seem more important than the climbing is. I watch Eric move up a natural line guided only by the geometry of the rock. We have no idea how hard the climbing will be, no list of recommended gear, no anchors, no knowledge of the lengths of the rappels. I arrive at our highpoint, breathing hard from the physicality of a strenuous overhanging crack and the delicacy of face moves. A bumblebee hovers near us insistently; its nest must be nearby. Debbie has explained to me that these creatures aren't normally aggressive, and their colonies are relatively small. They are wonderfully adapted, able to control the temperatures of their hives by vibrating their wings. Eric and I are trying to be careful not to wreck anything here. We rap off a single nut, backed up by a very long sling around a tree. Trunks grow and slings constrict. Descents from old and forgotten routes are often flagged by tight white bands around trees. Even if the slings didn't turn to dust upon being handled, no rope would fit anymore between the aged nylon and the bark. Our concept of time is so limited that it's hard to imagine this small tree growing into a large one over the decades beyond our own lifetimes. The bumblebee flies a kilometer or two to find flowers. It uses 1/400th of a calorie per minute when it forages. This time of year, it must need about one and a half calories for the day. An hour after we get back to the car, Eric and I consume thousands of calories of food and cold beer as we talk about the many new-route possibilities. Our bumblebee host was watching us for nearly an hour, thus taking an hour off from its foraging and leaving one tenth of its energy requirement unmet. Its defense of the nest represents a possible self-sacrifice; all actions have consequences. Self-sufficiency in a hostile environment, an ideal of climbing mastery, is the daily existence for all the living things we climb past—life that we might not even imagine is there at all. Our play can add even more difficulties to these creatures' already-daunting challenges. I find no answer to this conundrum. Many of the places climbers go have not been visited by anyone, let alone by the team of biologists necessary to study a diverse ecosystem. And while climbers tend to reject area closures as a solution, perhaps we might be more willing to collaborate with other people who seek a deeper understanding of these unexplored vertical worlds. Through that knowledge, we might be better able to judge the worth of another first ascent. We might remember that our visit is a choice we make—one that we can afford because of our liberation from the necessary toil of subsistence living. Although we don't have to dwell in that wilderness, we have a responsibility to the life that still does. As successful as our species has become, we still depend on it in known and unknown ways. NOT LONG AFTER THE REUNIFICATION OF GERMANY, I traveled to Dresden for a conference. On a free day, I started the drive toward the sandstone towers of Elbsandstein, and I quickly arrived in a forest. The thick trees and the lush understory of vegetation appeared shockingly green in contrast with the concrete city. The populace lived in what I consider to be horrible apartment buildings, part of the old communist aesthetic, I suppose. But that same form of urban planning preserved the wild parts of the countryside right up to the city limits. There was no suburban sprawl, yet. Twenty years later, I remember the outskirts of Dresden as a parable. We seek the freedom to move deeper into such wild places and, inevitably, we change them by our presence. We can love something so much that we destroy it by our attention and desire. As more and more of us love the mountain life, we share that love with our friends and children, and they with theirs. And at some point the thing we love, the wilderness, is not wild anymore. It looks more like a park. We change it to reduce the potential risk to ourselves and to make our visit more convenient: eliminate the wild predators, add a bridge, put in a concession stand. We impose ourselves there and remove that element of the unknown, which is the setting for adventure. Our ideals embody the notion of risk and uncertain outcomes, yet we conspire to ensure certainty. How do we balance these contradictory desires? Here at Alpinist, our small editorial staff works hard to create in-depth stories that are thoughtfully edited, thoroughly fact-checked and beautifully designed. Please consider supporting our efforts by subscribing.

Duration: 101 minutes Actors: Felicity Jones, Eddie Redmayne, Himesh Patel, Phoebe Fox Genres: Action, Adventure, Biography, Drama, Thriller Director: Tom Harper Writert: Tom Harper (story by) Jack Thorne (story by) Jack Thorne Release: 2019-11-04 Summary of Les Aéronautes Au 19e siècle, une pilote de montgolfière un scientifique s'embarquent dans les airs pour découvrir les secrets du paradis. Alors qu'ils vont plus haut dans l'atmosphère que n'importe quel ballon auparavant et font d'incroyables découvertes, ils en viennent à se battre pour leur survie. Les Aéronautes - 2019 Trailer You want to watch Les Aéronautes (2019) full movie? So this is the right place. Tags: Watch Les Aéronautes (2019) Full Movie Online Streaming Les Aéronautes (2019) FULL HD HD Movie Les Aéronautes (2019) Streaming Online Youtube Les Aéronautes Watch Free Les Aéronautes.

The aeronauts trailer español. Total 72 posts, 1389 commentaires, 600 participants Meilleur post par /u/ubomw avec 790 points Monument aux aéronautes du siège de Paris par Bartholdi, fondu en 1941 Meilleur commentaire par /u/troubaba avec 129 points Malgré ce titre trompeur, ce ne sont pas les mêmes 500 personnes qui meurent chaque année, ça tourne tous les ans Pire commentaire par /u/smile-bot-2019 avec -47 points I noticed one of these. So here take this. D Commentaire le plus discuté par /u/Merrynoss avec 10 réponses Pour les gens encore jeunes qui travaillent en jean/baskets avec le laptop dans le sac à dos, le vélo est jouable (et pas trop de kilomètres. Quand. Stats utilisateurs Ouh les amoureux: u/charlu et /u/realusername42 se sont échangés 15 doux messages aujourd'hui! Prix Qualité: u/LeComteKleenex, qui a atteint 471. 50 milliSPHKS. Prix POC (postage obsessionnel compulsif. u/dogDroolsCatsRules avec 23 commentaires Prix de la tartine de texte: u/AwayFromQ avec un total de 10652 caractères tapés Prix 'MON CAPS LOCK EST CASSE. u/jauniwitt qui a gueulé, en tout, sur 41 caractères Prix de l'indécision: u/ aRn- avec 12 questions Karma-Jackpot: u/ubomw avec + 241 points! Karma-Krach: u/Findlaech avec -55 points! piedbot v1. 5 maintenu par /u/mudpizza.

The aeronauts rating. Les Aéronautes (2019. Avis & Commentaires Les Aéronautes est sorti en 2019 et a généralement reçu des critiques positives. Les évaluateurs en ligne ont écrit 16 avis, ce qui donne à Les Aéronautes (2019) une note moyenne de 63. Dans l'ensemble, les spectateurs préfèrent marginalement le film, ce qui lui donne un score moyen de 62% comparé aux critiques de cinéma, qui lui ont attribué un score moyen légèrement inférieur de 55. Avec un score de 63% Les Aéronautes est à peu près le même que le score moyen de Cinafilm pour les films réalisés en 2019, qui se situe à 62. Les Aéronautes (2019. Détails du film Les Aéronautes (2019. 16 Critiques de Films Les Aéronautes (2019. 12 Avis d'Utilisateurs Les Aéronautes (2019. 4 Avis des Critiques.

It's just a movie to me. When I want historical perspective I watch the History Channel. The aeronauts wiki.

The aéronautique et de l'espace

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Smithsonian Libraries, Natural History Building, 10 th St. and Constitution Ave. NW, Washington DC, 20560. 1 (202) 633-2240, Contact Us Site Map, Privacy, Terms of Use, Copyright, Smithsonian Home. The aeronauts showtimes. Tell me that I wasn't the only one who almost cried, when they told Jack, Rose died last night. Plug Unplug 😂. From Cyrano to Jean-Luc Picard FROM CYRANO TO JEAN-LUC PICARD PART I: The Conquest of Space Contrary to popular belief, Man's conquest of space did not begin in the mid-20th century, but long before. In fact, as this article will show, there are accounts of Man's first, timid steps nto space as early as 160 A. D.! This is not surprising, since man's eyes turned toward the heavens as soon as he stepped out of the caves. Further, reliable accounts from chroniclers such as H. P. Lovecraft and Robert E. Howard (among others) who thoroughly researched ancient civilizations, show that Man was also visited by a variety of celestial beings. So what would be more natural than wanting to explore the very skies from which they descended? The accounts of what we shall call "Proto-Space Travel" are many. as are those of further encouters with alien beings. For example, the notorious Micromegas, a giant alien from Sirius, accompanied by an equally gigantic Saturnian, visited Earth in 1752, and conversed with the highly cartesian, rational writer, François-Marie Arouet, a. k. a. Voltaire. Yet, the laws of physics and recent astronomic discoveries about other planets would seem to contradict many of these reports. While it is true that some reports may only be flights of fancy, delusions, or attempts to cash in on another person's success story, most are written factually, almost in a journalistic style, with great efforts spent to convince the reader of the veracity of the account. Certainly, testimonies from a variety of enlightened figures, such as Johannes Kepler, a founding father of astronomy, or Voltaire, a guiding ligt of the Age of Reason, to name but two, cannot be casually dismissed. Therefore, if we accept the truth that at least a number of reports of proto-space travel are real, we are then forced to consider the astounding notion that, while the laws of physics remain unchanged, the characteristics of Earth's Outer Space may have been different in the past from what they are today... But before we engage in speculations, let us first examine the evidence. 1. PROTO-SPACE TRAVEL In this section, we shall review, in chronological order, the most notorious. and likely to be real. instances of proto-space travel. 160 A. D. Lucian of Samosata wrote the first account of what may well be Man's first journey into space, Icaromenippus, in which a new Icarus, a man named Menippus, told him how he used a sophisticated winged apparatus that combined the wings of eagles and vultures to reach our satellite, or at least a floating object located "three thousand furlongs away. The place that Menippus reached is described as a rocky spot. All this leads us to speculate that Menippus may not, in fact, have reached the Moon as Lucian believed, but one of the floating islands located in the upper strata of Earth's atmosphere, à la Laputa, later described in great detail by Jonathan Swift in his report on Gulliver's Travels. Lucian's report was likely poorly received by the masses, for he reworked the same yarn in his later Vera Historia, but this time making it far more exciting, casting Ulysses as the hero, adding plenty of adventure (flying ships and other worlds in space) and trying to pass it off as a "missing chapter" of Homer's best-selling Odyssey. Vera Historia is a better read and, in some respects, perhaps a more prophetic one, but it sounds like made-up fiction, while Icaromenippus reads like a true account. Was Menippus the first man to have effectively ascended to the Heavens. We shall never know for certain... 1634 A far more credible account of proto-space travel is the one written by the noted astronomer Johannes Kepler, who in Somnium reported the story told to him by a mysterious Icelandic man named Duracotus. a self-proclaimed student of Tycho Brahe. who claimed to have travelled to the Moon. In truth, Duracotus revealed to Kepler that he was carried there by winged Selenites, who trafficked with his mother, a notorious witch. But what gives this account an undisputable ring of truth is that Duracotus explained to Kepler that these "demons" had to devise ways to accommodate the human's need for air and his intolerance of extreme cold. These were taken care of through the use of a sleeping potion and moistened sponges pressed against his face. Duracotus also noted his passage through the point where the gravity of Earth and of the Moon balanced each orther. These details, magnified by the scrutiny of such a renowned scientist as Kepler, make us believe the basic veracity of Duracotus' account, and give us our first glimpses into the reality of Outer Space as it might have been at the time, and the creatures which dwelled therein. 1638 Bishop John Wilkins's A Discourse Concerning a New World and Another Planet acknowledged his debt to Kepler's Somnium. This very successful book, reprinted in 1640, concerned itself with the need to manufacture "flying chariots" to go and colonize our satellite. Wilkins took the idea of space travel very seriously, and approached it with great scientific discipline and unbound enthusiasm and faith in man's ultimate conquest of space, but ultimately it was nothing more than prospective fiction. Francis Godwin's notorious The Man in the Moone, coincidentally published the same year, and released under the pseudonym of "Domingo Gonzales" the name of the story's hero) in which the protagonist use trained swans to fly to the Moon, was pure and simple fiction, with no pretense otherwise. 2. FIRST ENCOUNTERS Duracotus was abducted by aliens, and therefore did not travel to the Moon under his own power. The honor of being Mankind's first envoy to the Outer Worlds therefore fell to French nobleman Hercule Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac. (The fact that Cyrano de Bergerac indeed deserved that honor was attested by Robert Heinlein in several of his works. ) In his Histoire des Etats et Empires de la Lune ( History of the States and Empires of the Moon) published posthumously in 1657, followed by Histoire des Etats et Empires du Soleil ( History of the States and Empires of the Sun) 1662) both eventually collected as L'Autre Monde ( Other Worlds) De Bergerac developed the concepts of rocket power, and not only of rockets, but of the use of second-stage rockets. His account is, in fact, the first description of a manned rocket flight in literature. ( An English translation of Cyrano's account by Don Webb can be found on the Bewildering Stories site. ) De Bergerac also lavishly detailed other fanciful "methods" of space travel, but undoubtedly these were included in the novel purely to obfuscate the nature of the real means employed to reach the Moon, and perhaps also to make the book more entertaining, and therefore more commercial. Another remarkable feature of De Bergerac's account, which gives it additional weight, is his elaborate description of the alien societies that he encountered on his journeys, such as that of the Bird-Men who live on the "dark side" of the Sun and hate men. (Very likely an alien colony established on Mercury. could these be related to the winged, space-faring aliens described by Howard in Tower of the Elephant? Thanks to De Bergerac, we first learned that Man was not only no longer the sole sentient species in the universe, but that in fact he was not even the most important one! This stunning revelation, taken in the religious context of the times (let us remember that 500 persons suspected of witchcraft and heresy were burned at the stake in Rouen in 1670. help explain why the wise De Bergerac embellished the true story of his space journey with many fantasyish details à la Godwin, and why he waited until after he was dead to have his accounts published. As a footnote here, we should mention that Charles Sorel, a contemporary of Cyrano de Bergerac, who reportedly knew him and may have been in on the real nature of his journeys, wrote in his Récit du Voyage de Brisevent ( Tale of Brisevent's Journey) in 1642 (just about the time when De Bergerac travelled to Outer Space. Some men have affirmed that there are many worlds, which some have placed in the planets, and others in the fixed stars; for my part, I believe there is a world on the moon. And further predicted that a " Prince as ambitious as Alexander, who shall come to conquer this world. would do so using " great engines, to descend or ascend. " After De Bergerac, space travel became more common, but it is often hard to separate real accounts from fanciful ones. 1666 Margaret Cavendish in The Blazing World wrote about the first woman space traveller, who made the round of the Moon and the other planets, but I don't know enough about her work to properly assess its veracity. 1686 It would not be, however, too surprising if Ms. Cavendish's account (and indeed, others we know nothing of) were indeed true, since Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle wrote his ground-breaking Entretiens sur la Pluralité des Mondes ( Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds) a documentary treatise about life on other planets which speculated on what the inhabitants of each world might be like. Certainly, a research like that could only be of use to starfarers... As further evidence of secret and not-so-secret space travel, let us note that France, Germany (in 1668) and Russia (in 1680, when Czar Peter the Great established a rocket factory in Moscow) all began to experiment with rockets after De Bergerac's journeys. And of course, the year De Fontenelle wrote his treatise was also the year when Isaac Newton published his Principia, in which the laws of motion and gravity were outlined... The space race had begun. 3. THE FIRST SPACE RACE We should skip Jesuit Gabriel Daniel's purely polemical Voyage du Monde de Descartes (1690. and David Russen's Iter Lunaire (in which a combination of springs and pullies was used to reach the Moon. for the clearly-labeled fantasies they were. (Either that or Russen worked hard to make people believe De Bergerac's accounts were a farce. ) 1705 Far more interesting, and fully consistent wih the notion of a space race, journalist Daniel Defoe, chronicler of the adventures of the notorious Robinson Crusoe, in The Consolidator, described the discovery of the eponymous spaceship, invented 2, 000 years before the Flood by a Chinese scientist named Mira-cho-cho-lasmo. The Consolidator is a flying machine powered by an internal combustion engine, that also featured hibernation capsules to ease the tedium of long, dangerous space flights. The Consolidator is the Roswell of the 18th century. Let us further ponder the fact that, on May 2, 1726, the following advertisement was placed in the Country Gentleman of London: The famous Planetarey Caravan, which I spoke of before, being now entire finish'd and render'd convenient for all such Persons who have any Desire to visit the Moon, Venus, Mercury, or any other of the Planets. the ad goes on to state where the Caravan presently is located, then mention the fares, based on the distances travelled. In the same Place also, may be seen the Planetarey Curricule, which is a Vehicle prepar'd only for Two Persons. The most interesting feature of this advertisement is that, when the distance to the Moon is worked out, based upon the fares given, it comes exactly to 240, 000 miles! 1728 Murtagh McDermot's A Trip to the Moon was a bizarre return to the theme of alien abduction, in which a man was taken to the Moon by an artificial whirlwind. Once there, however, friendly Selenites helped him return to Earth in a barrel-shaped ship, launched from a gun barrel dug one-mile deep into the lunar soil, and using a powder train a mile long to ignite it. One is easily led to speculate that such technology was then adapted and reused 137 years later by the pioneers of the American Gun-Club. 1741 The anonymous A New Journey to the World in the Moon described a spaceship clearly built according to the specs of the Consolidator, and went on to detail the conditions of Outer Space and the difficulties of travelling through it. 1745 German writer Eberhard Christian Kindermann's Swift Journey by Airship to the Upper World may have been intended to record the first German space travel to the Moon, and then to Mars, but because it used a balloon-powered gondola, one is inclined to dismiss it as pure fiction, unless it was purposefully camouflaged as such. (One may want to add in this category Rudolph Erich Raspe's notorious travels of his fictional Baron of Munchausen from 1785. 1761 On the other hand, De Listonal's space "galley" described in Le Voyageur Philosophe dans un Pays Inconnu aux Habitants de la Terre ( The Philosophical Traveler In A Country Unknown From The Inhabitants Of Earth) was secretly assembled by an international crew in an undisclosed location, and featured a full crew, complete with pilot and astronavigator. The purpose of its journey was more commerce with the Selenites. By the mid-to-late 18th century, alien encounters, either on Earth or in Outer Space, had become fairly frequent. Among these, we should record the Chevalier de Béthune's Relation du Monde de Mercure ( Tale Of The World Mercury) 1750) another description of the colony of immortal, winged beings inhabiting the planet Mercury; Voltaire's own close encounter with the alien Micromegas from Sirius (1752) Charles-François Tiphaigne de la Roche's traffics with Zamar the Selenite, detailed in In Amilec (1754) Marie-Anne de Roumier-Robert's Voyage de Milord Céton dans les Sept Planètes ( Voyage Of Lord Ceton In The Seven Planets) 1765) in which Lord Ceton and his sister Monime travel to seven different planets "on the wings of the angel Zachiel. " In 1775, chemist Louis-Guillaume de La Follie's Le Philosophe sans Prétention ( The Philosopher Without Pretention) recorded the visitation of Earth by a crew of Mercurian scientists led by one Scintilla (who had been in telepathic contact with Earthmen before) who came to our planet in an electric-powered starship, using static electricity, not unlike the infamous Daleks. Until then, space travel had been the exclusive province of scientists and philosophers, who had meekly approached other species, aware of Earth's lower status. This was going to change during the course of the 19th century... As the 18th century ended, the French Revolution crippled space travel in France. In the early 1790s, the noted utopist, playwright, and journalist Louis-Abel Beffroy de Reigny, better known as "Cousin Jacques" wrote a number of plays taking place on other planets, but these were merely satires, bitter-sweet dreams of what once was or might have been. The future of space travel in the 19th century was to be found in England, and America. 4. PUSHING OUTWARD The 19th Century showed the beginning of an aggressive push by Mankind into Outer Space, driven by the same type of impulses which had compelled the European powers to colonize most of Asia and Africa. However, it is worth noting that space travel remained, for the most part, the province of individuals or companies, not governments. 1815 Edward Francesca Burney's account, Q. Q. Esq. 's Journey to the Moon, reported on a journey to the Moon undertaken by a man known only as Q. in a conical capsule launched by four cannons. Undoubtedly, this can be seen as a prelude to the famous Gun-Club enterprise, fifty years later. 1827 America entered the space race in a big way, and yet the events we are about to record would lead to two divergent paths for space travel. A professor at the University of Virginia, George Tucker (who taught Edgar Allan Poe) writing under the pseudonym of "Joseph Atterley" recorded the first American trip to the Moon in A Voyage to the Moon. A truncated, cubic spaceship, propelled by the newly-discovered, gravity-repulsing substance, Lunarium, was used to dispatch a crew to the Moon. More about the origins of Lunarium below... However, there were various technological problems with the use of Lunarium, as is always the case with emerging technologies. In fact, Lunarium technology would not be perfected until Professor Cavor in the early days of the next century. Also, the huge financial interests of the competing gun manufacturers helped suppress research into Lunarium, to the clear advantage of gun-driven or rocket-powered technologies. 1835 Edgar Allan Poe 's renowned account of The Unparalleled Adventures of Hans Pfaal is capital on several accounts. First, the report is crowded with numerous scientific and astonomical details that attest to its authenticity. While certain key facts were obviously kept hidden, disguised, or obfuscated by Poe, it also provides further evidence that Earth's atmosphere extended, albeit in extreme tenuity, nearly as far as the Moon. as previously discovered by Kepler. Finally, one is led to wonder if the protagonist "Hans Pfaal" fleeing his creditors, is in fact none other than Poe himself. Certainly a student of George Tucker would have been greatly motivated to embark on a space journey of his own, and it is equally possible that one of the purposes of this journey was to further develop Lunarium research. In fact, could have Poe been murdered by gun-makers in an attempt to prevent further research into Lunarium. We should dismiss here as clearly fictional J. L. Riddell's Orin Lindsay's Plan of Aerial Navigation (1847) in which the hero was dragged off in space by a comet (unless it is yet another case of alien abduction. Charles Rumball (writing as "Charles Delorme" s The Marvellous and Incredible Adventures of Charles Thunderbolt in the Moon (1851) a children's novel which featured a steam-driven spaceship; Louis Desnoyers' Les Aventures Amphibies de Robert-Robert et de son fidèle compagnon Toussaint Lavenette ( The Amphibian Adventures Of Robert-Robert And His Faithful Companion Toussaint Lavenette) 1853) and Alfred Drious's Les Aventures d'un Aéronaute Parisien dans les Mondes Inconnus ( The Adventures Of A Parisian Aeronaut In The Unknown Worlds) 1856) both of which featured protagonists reaching the Moon via hot air balloon. 1860 More evidence of secret research into Lunarium technology, possibly sent to France by Poe via his renowned translator, poet Charles Baudelaire, can be found in Alexandre Dumas 's novella " Voyage à la Lune. Trip To The Moon) in which our satellite was reached by a spacecraft powered by an unnamed substance (hint, hint. repelled by the Earth. Both Poe and Dumas, as one will recall, were men who had been in contact with the mysterious figure known diversely as Joseph Balsamo, Arthur Gordon Pym and Count of Monte-Cristo, who himself was in possession of alien technology, which may in fact explain the origin of the Lunarium in the first place. (See our companion article, Who Was Nobody. It is not altogether surprising to find them both, once again, linked in such a fashion. But the gun and rocket manufacturers would not so easily be disarmed. no more than lighter-than-air partisans would, until the same man, now known as Nemo or Robur, would prove once and for all the superiority of heavier-than-air flying machines. Two ground-breaking attempts were going to be ushering a new age in space conquest at the end of the 19th century: one based in France, the other in America. 5. THE INDUSTRIAL SPACESHIP HAS ARRIVED Coincidentally, both attempts took place in 1865, and were reported by French writers. The first, and historically least important, was chronicled by Achille Eyraud in his Voyage à Vénus ( Voyage to Venus. In it, a French spaceship propelled by a "reaction engine. which some genre scholars construed as a kind of multi-stage rockets, managed to reach the planet Venus, the seat of peaceful society, in which the sexes were equal and solar-powered robots toiled in the fields. But the technology described by Eyraud proved far too imperfect and problematic, and was abandoned. Far more successful was the American Gun-Club's 5 million space travel enterprise described in great detail by Jules Verne in his De la Terre à la Lune ( From the Earth to the Moon. A projectile containing Americans Barbicane and Nichols, and daring Frenchman Michel Ardan, was fired from a giant cannon located in Florida. Their return to Earth was chronicled in Autour de la Lune ( Around the Moon) published in 1870. Because of the huge publicity given to the event by the American business community, the Gun-Club's journey was largely perceived as a huge success, in spite of the fact that it achieved very little. Yet, because of this publicity, there is powerful evidence that the entire history of rocketry and space travel would have continued to remain mired in isolated, even amateurish, attempts, had not this trip taken place. One might even go as far as stating that it was that first aggressive foray into space by gun-makers and conquerors that was responsible, as we shall speculate below, for events of cosmic magnitude throughout the Solar System. For, by the time Barbicane, Nichols and Ardan reached the Moon, our satellite had obviously been abandoned by the races that once lived on it. Only ruins remained on the surface. Some Selenites, as Professor Cavor eventually discovered, chose a temporary refuge under the Moon's surface. Others simply retreated to the Outer Planets. One can only assume that such a drastic move was the direct consequence of Industrial Revolution-Man's aggressive push into space. Second, one might also speculate on the technologies actually employed by the Gun-Club. Verne, who was shown in our companion article to have purposefully (if clumsily) disguised the true records of Arthur Gordon Pym and Captain Nemo (see Who Was Nobody? also obfuscated certain facts about some of the top secret methods employed by the Gun -Club, such as the identity of the metal alloys used for the projectile (likely tungsten steel) and the presence of some form of inertia-compensating device. This secrecy is due to the fact that, as aliens were progressively moving out of the way of the expanding human race, certain physical characteristics of Outer Space (such as the presence of a tenuous atmosphere between Earth and the Moon recorded by Poe and others) were, undoubtedly much to the surprise of human scientists, also changing. The publicity machine of the Gun-Club, and the Governments behind them, could not have Earth's populace become aware of such realities, and once again, Verne collaborated by publishing a heavily sanitized version of the truth. As we said at the beginning of this article, the moment has therefore come to reconcile the reality of proto-space travel and early space journeys with the notion that, while the laws of physics remain unchanged, the characteristics of Earth's Outer Space may have been different in the past from what they are today. We now know that Earth. indeed the entire Solar System. actually travels through space. We shall therefore hypothesize that, in centuries past, the Solar System crossed a region of space presenting different physical characteristics, from which it emerged only (and progressively) after, and as a result of, the Gun-Club space travel of 1865. We shall dub this space. Aether Space. 6. AETHER SPACE While our knowledge, and understanding, of Aether Space is by force limited, a careful study of the various reports we have just reviewed enable us to form a general idea of its nature. First and foremost, as we have seen, Aether Space was inhabited. Previously in this article, we have reported on numerous instances of recorded contacts between Men and Aliens, dating as far back as the early 1600s. Let us add that the eminent American writer Charles Fort long suspected that Earth was not unlike a small primitive island in space, a space inhabited by unimaginable beings, crossed by inconceivable vehicles, who occasionally dumped their refuse on our planet, or interacted with us as we interact with monkeys or cattle. Similar descriptions of the universe, as we have seen, also arise from the various reports written by H. Lovecraft and, as we have already pointed out, Robert E. Howard's accounts of the long-dead Hyborian Age. The concept of Earth not being alone in a cosmic void devoid of life, but on the contrary sharing its space with a solar system teeming with other lifeforms can also be found in a variety of other research works, from the notorious Madame Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine, to Christian author C. S. Lewis' Out of the Silent Planet, to Maurice Renard's ground-breaking Le Péril Bleu, and more. Even today, many who believe in aliens, believe that Man is not alone, and is either manipulated by higher beings, or projects upon them a variety of illusions reflecting his inner beliefs rather than true reality. And, as we have noted, the artefacts of Madame Blavatsky's alien "Dzyan" found in the Antarctic, also played a major part in the life of the man known as Nemo, as outlined in our companion article, Who Was Nobody? Second, Aether Space was different from regular space. Many of the reports we have studied indicate the existence of a form of atmosphere extending beyond Earth's immediate boundaries, as well as the presence of gaseous "pockets" in space. Planetary conditions on Mars, Venus, Mercury, etc. as reported were equally different from the ones found in modern times. Finally, some of the laws of physics did not appear to be identical to what we know, or at the very least seemed to be working differently. All this leads us to speculate that perhaps certain regions of space may be more "porous" than others... Gravity not being quantic in nature would remain the same for humans bound to the planetary surface, but a weaker gravity would not be as strong a glue once outside of Earth's attraction. Were the Planck's constant ever so slightly different, the speed of light would actually increase, making space travel more practical. Etc., etc. In short, Aether Space then may well have been different from Outer Space now. Our final speculation, by far the most daring, would be to ask whether Aether Space was a natural phenomenon, or an artificial one? Could vast, cosmic intelligences, such as, or even beyond Lewis' Eldils, have decided the move Aether Space beyond the confines of the Solar System, once man's incursions into space became both frequent and aggressive? Could it be possible that, what was once a thriving, planet-spanning, cosmic eco-system just packed its bags and left (with a few exceptions, as we shall see) leaving behind it a barren collection of dead worlds and cold, hostile, airless void, stripped of its wonderful properties? In effect, has Mankind been effectively quarantined? ALSO READ "MARS À L'OMBRE" FOR MORE ABOUT EARTH AND MARS TO READ PART II: MANIFEST DESTINY.

Associated date(s) 1805-1870. Les aéronautes Labarre, Théodore; Crevel de Charlemagne, Louis; Magnan, Abel; Piagel et Cie. Bella C. Landauer Collection of Aeronautical Sheet Music (Smithsonian Institution. Libraries) Bernard Latte [1834? Read more about Les aéronautes Read more about Les aéronautes. The aeronauts 2019. Eddie can make a perfect sandwitch. I cant even cut bread:1.


Bonne journée. ❣️😀😉🍾🥂🍣😀 Il y a 236 ans, le premier voyage aérien a lieu le 21 novembre 1783, jour à jamais mémorable dans lhistoire de l'humanité. ❣️❣️❣️ Ce soir, les Aéronautes de Monaco ont eu le privilège de recevoir la visite de S. A. S le Prince Albert II de Monaco et de S. R la Princesse de Hanovre. On vole sous la pluie? Non, mais on va quand même le faire 😀! monaco #ballonmonaco #aircourtage #champagnejeeper #chapal #chapal1832 #39montecarlo #lecrin_boutique #aviation #balloons #balloon #travel #travelphotography #travelgram #globetrotter #nature #adventure #sky #air #flying #hotairballoon #love #instagood #photooftheday #beautiful #tbt #followforfollowback #instadaily #followme #happy Retrouvez-nous ce mercredi 20 novembre au Grimaldi Forum. Participez à notre tombola et tentez de gagner: 2 voyages en montgolfière ❣️❣️ - 3 bouteilles de Champagne Jeeper 🍾🍾🍾 - 3 boites de dégustation de L'Écrin boutique🍣🍣🍣 L'intégralité de la recette sera reversée à l'organisation de la journée des droits de l'enfant Monaco. Aujoudhui, à Monaco, cest la fête nationale 🇲🇨🇲🇨🇲🇨 L'hiver arrive. 😉❣️😀😀😀🍾🥂 #monaco #ballonmonaco #aircourtage #champagnejeeper #chapal #chapal1832 #39montecarlo #lecrin_boutique Balcons avec vue à 360. 😉❣️😀😘 ⁣#monaco #ballonmonaco #aircourtage #champagnejeeper #chapal #chapal1832 #39montecarlo #lecrin_boutique Les montgolfières sont à l'honneur à Monte-Carlo. 😉😀🍾🍾🍾🥂❣️ To be or not to be. 😉😘😉😘 Voler en montgolfière est un privilège qui se partage 😀 Photo: Michel Lebleux Bonne journée. 😉😀😘 Photo: Christian Larit - Journée des droits de lenfant. ⁣ ⁣Rendez-vous au Grimaldi Forum le mercredi 20 novembre 11h30 à 19h30. ⁣ ⁣⁣Photo: Manuel Vitali Tant qu'à faire. autant faire beau. 😀😉🍾🥂❣️ Bonne journée. 😉😀😄😁😆 Livraison 🚚 à domicile 🏡. 😀🎈🍾🥂 #monaco #ballonmonaco #aircourtage #champagnejeeper #chapal #chapal1832 #39montecarlo #aviation #balloons #balloon #travel #travelphotography #travelgram #globetrotter #nature #adventure #sky #air #flying #hotairballoon #love #instagood #photooftheday #beautiful #followforfollowback #instadaily #followme #art #follow #happy Précision d'atterrissage. 😉😉😉😉 Aucun risque de prendre un PV... [11/04/19] Précision datterrissage 😀👍🏻🍾🥂🏆🥇 Retrouvez-nous les 8 & 9 juin au Montgolfiades 2019 de Chalon sur Saône. 😀🎈🍾🎈🥂🎈😘 1000 personnes suivent nos aventures. 😀🎈 Merci à vous. 😘😉🍾🥂🏆🥇👏 😉🍾🥂🏆🥇🎯😘 Respirez... Vous êtes à bord de notre montgolfière écologique Champagne Jeeper 😘😉 [05/11/19] On vous prépare de nouvelles « surprises » 😉 Boum Boum Variomètre à zéro... un vol tranquille à bord de la montgolfière écologique Champagne Jeeper 😉😉😉 Le sol n'est pas trop dur. Non, ça va. 😉🍾🥂😘 Pas de moteur, pas de roues pour atterrir mais ça vole quand même 😉 Vol en montagne... Une photo est une fenêtre par laquelle on s'évade. 😉 😉😉😉😉 Le 4 mai, c'est le Star Wars Day! 😀🎉🍾🥂😉 [05/03/19] Un joli souvenir dun vol avec une belle famille 😘😘😘 Les Aéronautes de Monaco souhaitent que ce brin de muguet vous porte chance toute l'année 😉 [04/29/19] C'est confirmé... terre est ronde 😉 Vertical les Alpes du sud à bord de notre montgolfière écologique Champagne Jeeper 🎈🍾🥂😉 Y'a pas l'feu au lac. Proverbe Suisse) 😉 😘😘😘😉🎈 Les Aéronautes de Monaco 🇮🇩vous souhaitent de yeuses Pâques 😉Happy Easter! 😀, Buona Pasqua! 😘, Feliç Setmana Santa👍, Felices Pascuas! 🍾, Frohe Ostern! 🥂 🎈 Activité du club pour le week-end de Pâques: vols à Mondovi en Italie à moins de 2h00 de la Principauté 🇮🇩. Rejoignez-nous! 😉 J-100! Les Aéronautes de Monaco participent avec leur montgolfière écologique Champagne Jeeper au Mondial Air Ballon - Le plus grand rassemblement au monde - à Chambley (Metz) France du 26 juillet au 4 août 2019 😉 [04/17/19] Pilotage au millimètre 😀😜 Pour le plaisir des yeux. 😉 Notre Montgolfière écologique Champagne Jeeper en vol au dessus de Monaco 🇮🇩 [04/15/19] Notre nouvelle montgolfière écologique Champagne Jeeper. c'est. La "classe" rever! 😘❣️🇮🇩🍾🥂😉 Il y a 10 ans Place du Casino - Monte-Carlo 🇮🇩 Le début d'une belle aventure pour les Aéronautes 🎈de Monaco🇮🇩.

Science Fiction in France before Verne Translated by J. M. Gouanvic and D. Suvin The purpose of this essay is to describe the development of French science fiction in the 19th century before Jules Verne. 1 It will not be confined to an historical study but will also consider some hypotheses about the ideological and cultural locus in which SF may have tried to take root before Verne established, for several generations, the pattern of the technological adventure story for young people based on his particular paradigm of accelerated circulation in a closed universe. The concept of ideological locus implies that the social discourse as a whole can be described as a topology within which various types of discourse are situated in an intertextual mesh consisting of relations of contiguity, filiation, derivation, and opposition. The ideological locus can be deduced, I think, from characteristics within the texts under consideration: various socio-linguistic and stylistic features, ideological presuppositions, imitated or transposed semiotic models — all these constitute converging clues for determining a locus. External data — the cultural status of the publisher, the audience aimed at and reached, the critics' reactions — serve as a verification of the internal analysis. 1. As a starting point, I shall regard as SF that group of narratives of conjectural imagination that describe a society axiomatically different from the empirical society around the author. The described state of affairs is estranged with a view to liberating the social imagination and promoting a rational criticism (which can include a satirical dimension. At the dawn of industrial capitalism, when the bourgeois revolutions were completed and the model of scientific activity was taking its modern shape, conjectural fiction also acquired, in its formal as well as its thematic constants, a number of essential features that are part of our modernity. This conjectural fiction is on our side of the ideological watershed; its peculiar and archaic features are rather superficial. Here then is a chronology by short title of French SF (omitting, as a rule, nonfictional utopian writings and narratives that did not appear in book form) from the First Empire to the end of the Second Empire, 1802-1870: 2 1802. N. Restif de la Bretonne. Les Posthumes. Paris: Duchêne. 1805. J. B. Cousin de Grainville. Le Dernier homme. Paris: Deterville. 1808. Coffin-Rony. Voyage d'Hyperbolus dans les planètes. Paris: Collin. 1810. Mosneron. Le Vallon aërien. Paris: Chaumerot. 1810. Duc de Levis. Les Voyages de Kang-Hi. Paris: Didot. 1831. A. Creuzé de Lesser. Paris: Delaunay. 1832. P. S. Ballanche. La Ville des expiations. Paris: n. e. 1832. Boucher de Perthes. "Mazular. Nouvelles. Paris: Treuttel & Wuertz. 1833. C. Nodier. "Hurlubleu. 1853, in Nouvelles, Paris: Charpentier. 1834. F. Bodin. Le Roman de l'avenir. Paris: Lecointe & Pougin. 1836. L. Geoffroy. Napoléon et la Conquête du monde (also pbd as Napoléon apocryphe, 1812-1832. Paris: Delloye. 1836. V. Considerant. Publication complète des nouvelles Découvertes dans la Lune. City and publisher not named. 1839. Desnoyers. Aventures de Robert-Robert. Paris: Hortet & Ozane. 1839. Boitard. "Etudes astronomiques. Musée des Familles, Vol. VI. 1840. E. Cabet. Voyage en Icarie. Paris: Souverain (pseud. of Th. Dufruit. 1844. Grandville and T. Delord. Un autre monde. Paris: H. Fournier. 1845. Souvestre. Le Monde tel qu'il sera. Paris: W. Coquebert. 1852. O. Berlioz. "Euphonia. Les Soirées de l'orchestre. Paris: Michel-Lévy. 1854. I. Defontenay. Star ou Psi de Cassiopée. Paris: Ledoyen. 1854. Coeurderoy. Hurrah! ou la Révolution par les Cosaques. Londres: n. e. 1856. Driou. Aventures d'un aéronaute parisien dan les mondes inconnus. Limoges: Barbou. 1857. Renouvier. Uchronie, l'Utopie dans l'histoire (1st version. 1876, final version in book form, Paris: Bureau de la critique philosophique. 1857. Gozlan. Les Emotions de Polydore Marasquin. Paris: Michel-Lévy. 1858. Déjacque. L'Humanisphère. Bruxelles: n. e. 1859. Gagne. Omégar ou le dernier homme. Paris: Didier. 1861. Etudes antédiluviennes — Paris avant les hommes. Paris: Passard. 1862. About. Le Cas de M. Guérin. Paris. Michel-Lévy. L'Homme à l'oreille cassée. Paris: Hachette. Le Nez d'un notaire. Paris: Michel-Lévy. 1863. Fabien. Paris en songe. Paris: Dentu. 1863. Verne. Cinq semaines en ballon. Paris: Hetzel. Verne's first novel; the later ones are not mentioned here. 1864. H. de Kock. Les Hommes volants. Paris: Cadot. 1864. Descottes. Voyage dans les Planètes. Paris: Lecoffre. 1865. Fournel. Paris nouveau, Paris futur. Eyraud. Voyage à Vénus. Paris: Michel-Lévy. 1865. G. Sand. Laura. Cathelineau. Voyage à la Lune. Paris: Faure. Probably an adaptation of the English novel by C. Trueman, The History of a Voyage to the Moon, 1864. 1865. Berthoud. L'Homme dupuis cinq mille ans. Paris: Garnier. 1865. de Parville. Un habitant de la planète Mars. Paris: Hetzel. 1867. X. Nagrien. Prodigieuse découverte et ses incalculables conséquences. Paris: Garnier. 1867. Assollant. Capitaine Corcoran. Paris: Hachette. 1868. Docteur Rengade. Voyage sous les flots. Paris: Brunet. 1868. Giraudeau. La Cité nouvelle. Paris: Amyot. 1869. Grousset. Le Rêve d'un irréconciliable. e. 1869. T. Moilin. Paris en l'an 2000. Paris: La Renaissance. 1869. Nagrien, Un Cauchemar. Paris: Lahure. The study of this science fiction avant la lettre leads to a first remark: the texts are varied and relatively numerous. The works under consideration are not exclusively the productions of marginal writers, of graphomaniacs and eccentrics; although some of our writers are totally unknown, and others only moderately known, a few are writers of the first rank. It would be erroneous to believe that these books were not read. Several even reached a rather wide public; some gained a somewhat clandestine admiration from a few enlightened dilettantes, a succès d'estime, which is not disregarded by "mainstream writers. In other words, there existed in France before Verne a heterogeneous but rather extensive production of what has to be called science fiction. Before Verne, however, SF never established a tradition, either as an industrial sub-literature or as an avant-garde aware of its aesthetic innovations. On the contrary, this production without cultural continuity remained deprived of any critical feedback — remained repressed and unnamable. It seems that each writer felt that he was starting from zero, for he scarcely knew his predecessors, or rather did not recognize them. He did not see the link between them and himself. The recurrence of the same themes is less a sign of plagiarism than of sheer blindness: the author knows the idea is not his, but does not remember where he found it. Let's take a counter-example from the para-literary genres. The gothic novel, which was largely dominant in French literary mass production after 1800, was undoubtedly looked upon as a despicable form of literature. Its frenzy and obscenity horrified academic criticism, which claimed that such a "literature for Hottentots" heralded the death of all aesthetic values, etc. Nevertheless, people knew that it existed and a genealogy was perceived; Walpole engendered Clara Reeve, who engendered Radcliffe, who engendered Lewis and Maturin, who engendered the French gothic novelists (without forgetting Sade, who was felt as the spiritual father of that "literature of Cannibals. Nothing of the kind existed for this early SF, even though each individual work can be considered a primitive pattern for major 20th-century narratives. A few of the works were recognized for the daring of their imagination and the power of their satire, but the genre had no status at all; it was institutionally illegitimate. In the small measure that SF was recognized, its lot was similar to that of utopian socialist writings: it was admired in narrow circles, but held up to ridicule in all the journals and covered with opprobrium by the enlightened bourgeois (and by the recognized writers, from Louis Reybaud to Gustave Flaubert. Bourgeois common sense saw to it that any imaginative divergence was censured. 2. Restif de la Bretonne appears as the first SF writer at the dawn of the 19th century, with Les Posthumes (1802. Restif is a great plebeian writer quite impossible to classify within the compartments of conventional literary history, failing as he does to comply with the stiff canons of the bourgeois aesthetic. He is in turn a pamphleteer, a memorialist, a novelist, a social critic, a "pornographer" he coined the word) and the inventor of the theory of cosmic sexuality that directly influenced Charles Fourier. He had earlier produced several works connected with SF: a novel, Le Découverte australe (1783) and a drama of utopian anticipation that places him close to Mercier, L'An deux mille (1790. Les Posthumes relates the travels of the Duke de Multipliandre through the solar system and the galaxy. The thesis of the plurality of inhabited worlds recurs frequently in primitive SF. Restif gives us the first exemplary model of the genre: a narrative universe in expansion, subject to cycles of centrifugal metamorphoses. From the language of the Selenites to the customs of the Martians, Restifs audacity is unbridled: he extrapolates, dreams, systematizes, parodies. At the apex of his conjecture is the insight on the origin of species: Did man, before becoming Man, pass through each and every animal species. Les hommes, avant d'être des hommes, auraient-ils passé par toutes les espèes d'animaux. — Lettre CCCXV. There is no sententious transposition of empirical customs, no philosophical satire here, but a metamorphic continuum that seems to me characteristic of genuine SF. Yet, as the work of an old man (a scandal to his contemporaries, discredited with the powers that be) and as an erratic catch-all full of tedious digressions as well as strokes of genius, Restif's science fiction was a commercial failure (Restif himself marketed it) and fell into oblivion with his death in 1806. In 1805 Cousin de Grainville committed suicide, leaving in manuscript a prose version of the philosophical epic he had dreamt of during his whole life, Le Dernier homme. The text was published; translated into English in 1806 as Omegarus and Syderia, without the author's name, it inspired Mary Shelley's The Last Man. It is the epic of the tribulations of the last man, Omegare, who must leave the last woman, Sydérie, so that they will not have the progeny that would recommence the eternal cycle of barbarism-civilization. It is a hybrid text, full of both Christian marvels and rational conjectures (the Earth dies from ecological exhaustion, despite the endeavors of men who have even displaced the oceans) and thus presenting a partially secularized eschatology. Although it was completely unsuccessful in 1805, Charles Nodier, the erudite romanticist, republished it in 1811; Creuzé de Lesser put it into verses in 1831; and Elise Gagne plagiarized it with great care in 1859, as did Flammarion and others at the end of the century. Let me pass over other writings that lack talent if not audacity: Coffin-Rony (1808) Jean Mosneron (1810; theme of the lost valley) and the Duke of Lévis (1810; Paris in the 20th century) as well as a long series of anonymous leaflets distributed through popular peddling that describe in four pages the conquest of Mars or the arrival of an aerolite inhabited by a Selenite, for with these we cannot even guess at anything about the authors, the public, or the demand they were supposed to meet. I will also not comment on such other works in the chronology as the hazy "social palingenesy" of the spiritualist philosopher Ballanche, the conjectural tales of Charles Nodier (for my taste, too much tongue-in-cheek in apology for imaginative audacities) or the SF tales, among them a voyage to the Moon, of the young Boucher de Perthes, later to be the father of paleanthropology. Félix Bodin, a liberal politician and novelist now fallen into oblivion, published Le Roman de l'avenir in 1834. He was conscious of inventing a new genre that he called "littérature futuriste. in which the intent is not the description of an ideal utopian society but instead the production of "a novelistic plot transposed into a future socio-political surrounding. " In his preface he tries to imagine the connection between changes in technology and changes in customs. A "novel" of the future can be written only on the assumption that contradictions and conflicts will still exist. Through individual destinies Bodin will hint at new moral axioms, speculating about miscegenation, the "restoration of the Jewish kingdom. the progress of aeronautics, the attempt to promote a universal language, and the failure of that attempt. He ends his preface withs these words: The epic of the Future remains to be written. I hope that someone else will take care of this. In so vast a literary empire, there is plenty of room for a Moses, a Homer, a Dante, an Ariosto, a Shakespeare, and even a Rabelais. L'épopée de l'avenir reste à faire. J'espère qu'un autre que moi s'en chargera. Dans ce vaste empire littéraire il y a largement place pour un Mo�se, un Homere, un Dante, un Arioste, un Shakespeare, et même un Rabelais" p 31. It is clear to Bodin that a "futuristic genre" is bound to appear. Those who are fond of prophecies in SF should read his preface, for it is a literary prophecy of extremely penetrating insight. His book thus belongs to SF not only for its content but also by the genological status claimed for it by the author. In the following generation, however, Bodin's faith is only partly justified, for although the literature of cognitive estrangement does develop, it does so only sporadically. Between 1835 and 1865 all the major subgenres and models of SF are exemplified, but each only by a single work. Likewise, all sociological points of impact are occupied: SF becomes light bourgeois reading, fiction with the function of the political pamphlet, the popular serial, the avant-garde text for the informed amateur, the doctrinaire text intended for marginal sub-groups, children's and young people's literature. But at none of these points does it develop any continuity. In 1836 Louis Geoffroy produced his Napoléon apocryphe, the first great uchronia. Napoleon is not defeated in Russia and does not die in St. Helena; instead he becomes Emperor of the World and dies in Paris in 1832 at the peak of his glory — a glory that has concealed a ruthless totalitarian dictatorship, a rational despotism in which the rapid development of sciences and techniques is achieved at the expense of individual liberty. This text might have been a mere political pamphlet, but it is saved by its concern for verisimilitude in details and by its shrewd parody of institutional discourses (the historian's, the statistician's, the legist's, etc. Uchronia is less the refusal of real history than the recognition of its ineluctable laws: by altering the course of events the author gives birth to a new history, but one that still contains the same rational determinism and contingency as empirical history. Another novel of alternative history is Renouvier's L'Uchronie (1857) a voluminous speculation by a neo-Kantian philosopher who modified one element of ancient history (the transmission of power from Marcus Aurelius to Commodus) so that he could imagine the history of the West as it could and should have been if Christianity had not spread over Europe. A serious even austere work, it also had no posterity. In 1839, 25 years before Verne, Pierre Boitard published the first story of adventure and scientific popularization for young people: Etudes astronomiques. This work depicts a voyage through the solar system, with the beings of each of the planets representing a stage of evolution: orang-outangs endowed with speech; fossil men (expressly named as such) humanoids on Mars analogous to the African Black; and modern men on Jupiter dressed as Romans. That was in 1839, in a Christian review for families! Thus highly audacious SF appears in the most unexpected institutions, to disappear soon after. (Two years after his death, Boitard's Paris avant les hommes [1861] was published; it is the first Darwinian narrative, and in it the pre-historical ape-man makes his appearance. Other novelists for children, Desnoyers (1840) and Driou (1856) also use SF themes, but in a silly, wily way, with over-simple devices (the world upside down, etc. Etienne Cabet, the promoter of Icarian socialism, gave a fictional form to his doctrine for strictly opportunistic reasons: he wished to be read by the ladies. Written in a drab style, with a thin and stupid plot, and with extreme over-systematization, Voyage en Icarie (1839) is void of any literary value, though its sociological importance is very great. Cabet is the complete opposite of Fourier: the social model of Icarie is centripetal and fetishist; the narrative is an obsessional accumulation of details that tend to prove the perfection of the whole on a smaller scale. Happiness is quantifiable; deviance is inconceivable, and the proselytism is stifling. One menu, one dress, one newspaper, one model of apartment — with the whole underlined by the sighs of admiration of the European travellers who have witnessed the marvels and narrate the story. If with Restif we have one of the first interplanetary voyages, with Grainville an epic in the Klopstock manner, with Bodin the first anticipation novel, with Geoffroy the first uchronia, we have with Emile Souvestre the first anti-industrial dystopia. His Monde tel qu'il sera (1846) is the paradigm of a genre later used by Robida and Wells, and still later by Zamiatin, Huxley, and Orwell. (Souvestre's analogies to Orwell are really amazing. Souvestre sees history as a process of cumulative, asymptotic degradation, a process that eliminates every traditional value in favor of the rule of quantity. The capitalist industrial society is extraneous to Man, whom it destroys, since it has no other law than its own maximal development, with the economic substituted for the biological. In the year 3000, when the whole earth is simply the Republic of United Interests (whose motto is "Everything with steam" the Capitalist attempts to "produce men the way threadmills produce cheap fabrics. fabriquer de l'homme à l'instar du calicot. This religious denunciation of modern civilization has procured a succès d'estime and a sort of cultural recognition for Souvestre. From Souvestre to Robida, from Villiers de l'Isle-Adam to Pérochon, bourgeois SF in France can be called a fiction of Science only if we allow for one reservation: it felt a visceral horror, an aristocratic contempt tinged with panic, for Science, and dreamt for the future of nothing but a return to a closed, feudal, and patriarchal society, an ideological "zero growth" in a pastoral environment. This phantasm becomes more and more exacerbated in the years immediately after Souvestre, during which a number of anti-modernist dystopias appeared, culminating in the bitterest and sharpest of them all, Giraudeau's La Cité nouvelle (1868. Hyperbolic caricatures of the world of machines become a constant in satirical conjecture during this period, as with Grandville (1844) draughtsman of genius whose pencil-stroke anticipates and heralds Albert Robida. Very different is Defontenay's Star (1854; recently republished in English) which by itself gives evidence of the unrecognized richness and audacity of French SF in the 19th century. It is a description of a planetary system (Psi Cassiopeia) of the races living on one of the planets, of their history, customs, mythology, and technology, and of the migration of the Starians through the planets of the system. The narrative is a model par excellence of SF: creation ex nihilo of an expanding paradigm, a totality as distant as possible from the empirical world and yet endowed with a rational dynamism, genuinely strange but still intelligible. Known today as the inventor of plastic surgery, Charlemagne-Ischir Defontenay, a physician, was a disciple of Fourier and an admirer of Hoffman. Some of the themes in his novel (at the outset appreciated by a few amateurs, but then completely forgotten) shed light on the ideological substratum of romantic SF. Such is the case, e. g., with anti-gravitation (a mythical device by which spaceships can escape planetary gravitation) with symbiosis between races and even between humans and animals (an alliance that allows mankind to avoid too great a dependence on machines) with the migration without conflict of the Starians through their solar system, with the lethal character of the religious need (the Priests of the Great Plague driving the people to collective suicide) and with the divinization of man as the ultimate philosophy of the cosmic age. It is almost impossible to paraphrase such great SF, for its aesthetic merit lies in the multiplicity of systems, models, customs, and doctrines it permits us to appraise in all their complexity and entanglement. Defontenay's type of imagination can be opposed as much to Souvestre's anti-industrial pessimism as to Cabet's entropic socialism. It is of minor importance that Souvestre sees the dark shades and Cabet the rosy tints (to his mind) for in both, the ideological pattern is the Leviathan-State, focusing the whole social energy on a rationalistic fetish, whether a despotic "socialist" planning or an idolatry of profit and profitability. To this implosion of the narrative into a dead-end conformity, Defontenay opposes the model of a continuum in which expansion of the novelistic world produces a liberation of the characters that is homologous to the imaginative liberation evidenced by the very form of the story. 3. In 1862, stimulated by the publisher Hetzel (who some years later would launch the Magasin d'Education et de Récréation, the first genuine magazine for young people in France) Jules Verne began publishing his scientific adventure novels. Their success was immediate, and the sociological implantation was very strong: there was an ever increasing demand from a public never limited to teenagers; the moral and pedagogical institution gave Verne its approval; a host of imitators appeared (André Laurie, Le Faure and Graffigny, Nagrien, Calvet, Berthet) and other writers, without imitating Verne, transposed his devices in aiming at the same reading public (such as Danrit, in the future-war novel, which in France was a genre intended for young men, in whom it was deemed essential to inspire a virile patriotism and hatred of "hereditary" enemies. In terms of cultural sociology, Verne's success contrasts with the failures of all the other authors we have mentioned, from Restif to Defontenay. It is as if SF had for sixty years sought in vain for an institutional "landing point" and ideological model; as if, despite the quality of some of the works mentioned, powerful resistances had impeded any success for forms with an intense speculative drift or a strong utopian and social-satire element, so that the fiction of scientific conjecture was finally repressed and driven into a more timid institutional framework, one more easily watched over by social censorship. It is obvious that Verne (a writer whose coherence and complexity of vision place him among the greatest) was able to skirt this censorship, thanks to his talent. But it is important to note that his early success was apparently a consequence of the repression of and implicit interdicts on conjectural imagination since the 1789 revolution. By comparing the invariants of Verne with those of Bodin or Defontenay, the signs of this ideological repression can be discovered in the narrative recipe that Verne's talent was able to abide: the requirements of, first, the verisimilitude inherited from bourgeois realism, which forced Verne to destroy his conjectural objects at the end of the narrative, e. g. the Nautilus, the Albatross, the golden meteor; second, the popularization that made his fiction a handmaiden to Science, resulting in the austere statements on the Coelenterata, the customs of Australian aborigines, and the principle of the Ruhmkorf coil; third, the description of Earth and its planetary suburbs as a closed world traversed in an accelerated circulation, a model homologous to the capitalist economic circulation (as I have argued in another study) 4 fourth, a taboo on all radical exteriority. no extraterrestrial beings, no mutation, no cataclysm, etc. fifth and last but not least, the various taboos and imperatives of puerile and "decent" sexual morals. Verne's genius consisted in making a virtue of these constraints, but it is striking that at the same time (during the 1860s) other writers tried to propose to the same public what we may call a more audacious SF. The titles speak for themselves: Voyage à Vénus (Eyraud) Voyage à la Lune (attributed to Cathelineau) Un Habitant de la Planète Mars (Parville) Prodigieuse découverte et ses incalculables conséquences (Nagrien) and some time later the Ignis (de Chousy) so admired by Alfred Jarry. No less striking is the fact that all these novels were unsuccessful. They contrast with Verne's brilliant prosperity during these years. Even though there is no doubt that his talent placed him above the unsuccessful writers, the indirect censorship of pedagogical and cultural institutions must also be taken into account. Thus established literature at first rejected any form of SF as a foreign body. Made up of realistic genres, it welcomed only one type of imaginative story. That type was not the gothic novel (of which the masterpiece in France was the young Victor Hugo's Han d'Islande, 1823) whose frenzy was censured in the name of good taste even more strongly in France than in England, and whose reign in the established literature was not long. It was instead the "conte étrange" uncanny tale) which appeared later in the century as the French version of German and English "fantasy" and was embraced by canonic literati. What I call "conte étrange" a designation more adequate than "conte fantastique" is a narrative meant for the dreamy relaxation of the bourgeoisie in which the events related admit of two explanations, one fantastic and paranoiac, the other rational and neutralizing. The narrator oscillates between the two principles on the basis that "There are more things in heaven and earth/ Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. The bourgeois reader, a skeptical positivist but nostalgic spiritualist, gratifies himself with uncertain metaphysical musings, stimulated by the author's refusal to resolve the issue. The model of the genre is Maupassant's "Horla. which in fact combines the scientific explanation with the occultist non-explanation and thereby neutralizes knowledge by terror and terror by knowledge. 5 This hybrid genre will in our time mislead French critics into considering SF an avatar of "fantasy. whereas it has from the outset been a fully autonomous ideological form. In other words, the dominant bourgeois aesthetics in the 19th century tolerated imagination only when it expressed fear, the paranoia of interdicts and punishments, or the fetishism of mystery. It refused or ignored it when it induced dreams of expanding universes, of the plurality of inhabited worlds, or of the happiness of metamorphoses. 6 Jules Verne brought to SF a benign social justification: the promotion of a literature for young people, progressivist and "virile. with no exaggerated display of moralism and with good literary value (generations of teenagers have learnt standard literary French from Verne rather than La Bruyère or Chateaubriand. To the adult public, which he conquered right away in spite of the pretense of being a children's writer, he offered a vision of the world that D. Suvin, in an apparent paradox, calls a "liberal utopia. 7 Science, the motor of an unlimited development, the immanent solvent of all social contradictions, produces the future from the present without any rupture or backlash. Hence the absence of anticipations in Verne, the plot being always contemporary with the publication date. Verne's ideological position, however, is the product of the repression of the SF characterized by a pure imaginative liberation and by utopian critique, which appeared before him and which he helped to mask. After 1865 a new body of SF was gradually to appear, with Camille Flammarion (who worked a vast spiritualist reconversion of positivist science, the eternity of the soul being proved by astronomy and modern physics) and then in the literary avant-garde with the "philosophical" novels of Rosny the Elder (who reintroduces a radical exteriority into the narrative world. Dealing with these authors and others would lead us beyond the limits assigned to this study. 4. To conclude. It is important to understand that both the ideological niche attributed to Jules Verne (who should no longer be called "the father of SF" and his status as a writer for young people are not fortuitous, but rather the product of institutional movements and specific ideological occultations. To say this is in no way to diminish his genius, but is instead to make clear how the emergence of a new form is conditioned by the interaction of a number of cultural practices. NOTES 1. Verne's first "scientific" novel is Cinq semaines en ballon, published in Paris by J. Hetzel in 1863, translated into English and published in London 1870 as Five Weeks in a Balloon. 2. Editorial Note. Since Professor Angenot has spoken above of using "the cultural status of the publisher" in determining the "ideological locus" of a text (even though he does not do so in this essay) SFS here makes an exception to its rule against specifying publishers in bibliographies. —RDM. 3. I will not in this essay deal with nonfictional utopian writings (Fourier, Saint Simon, etc. nor with narrative extrapolations by precursors of libertarian socialism (Coeurderoy, Déjacques. 4. "Jules Verne, the Last Happy Utopianist" in P. Parrinder, ed., Science Fiction: A Critical Guide (London: Longmans, planned for] 1978. 5. For this genre, all the "great" names can be mentioned: Charles Nodier, George Sand, Balzac, Théophile Gautier, Mérimée, Maupassant, Erkmann-Chatrian, and Barbey d'Aurevilly. The "uncanny tale" can be seen as a variant of Hoffmanian fantasy, whose hermeneutic ambivalence has been emphasized and thus made its most important feature. 6. As a compromise, a "middle-of-the-road" SF will appear at the beginning of the 20th century as part of "leisure-reading" literature. It will then be cast in the mold of the "uncanny tale" from which it will retain above all the rule of hermeneutic oscillation (Maurice Renard, J. A. Nau, C. Derennes, et al. In popular paraliterature, no form of SF appears before Verne. Around 1860 popular paraliterature is still dominated by the model of the Promethean novel, with its handsome, gloomy hero, the avenger of social injustices, a model that will give birth to the miscarriage-of-justice novel, and then, by obliterating the original ideological intention, to the detective novel. Not until the beginning of the 20th century can there be found in the industrial serials the first examples of SF meant for a plebeian readership — contaminations of gothic Manichaeism, the Promethean novel, the science fantasy (Guitton & LeRouge, La Conspiration des Milliardaires, Le Régiment des hypnotiseurs, 1899 ff. 7. See D. Suvin, Communication in Quantified Space: The Utopian Liberalism of Jules Verne's SF. Clio 4(1974) 51-74. ABSTRACT This study describes the development of French science fiction in the nineteenth century before Jules Verne. It will not be confined to a historical study but will also consider hypotheses about the ideological and cultural locus in which SF may have tried to take root before Verne established, for several generations, the pattern of the technological advnture story for young people based on his paradigm of accelerated circulation in a closed universe. Offering a chonology of French SF from 1802 (N. Restif de la Bretonne, Les Posthumes) to 1869 (X. Nagrien, Un Cauchemar) the essay argues that there existed in France before Verne a heterogeneous but rather extensive production of science fiction. Before Verne, however, SF never established a tradition, either as an industrial sub-literature or as an avant-garde aware of its aesthetic innovations. On the contrary, this production without cultural continuity remained deprived of any critical feedback- before Verne, SF in France remained repressed and unnamable. It seems that each writer felt he was starting from zero, for he scarcely knew his predecessors, or rather did not recognize them. The recurrence of the same themes is less a sign of plagiarism than of sheer blindness: the author knows the idea is not his, but does not remember where he found it. Forty-six novels written by Vernes precursors are listed; many are briefly discussed. Back to Home.

The abyss meets alien. The aeronauts true story. Gabriel Byrne is the only Friedrich Bhaer I will tolerate. I loved the 1st episode, when doorman is your main man. A phenomenal movie from which you will get motivate and understand the struggle of all scientists to discover every single advancement for our life. The movie is very straight forward, a biography of James Glaisher and wealthy young widow Amelia Wren to discover and learn how to prediction weather and save thousands of lives. although as in the climax James Glaisher says "We tell our story not for the pleasure but for the advancement of knowledge" the in the scene when Amelia Wren climbs up to balloon, at this scene I sure you would be on the edge of the chair to watch it.
Overall, the movie will not bore you at all, you will definitely get motivated but don't expect to see any Romance or action, drama.

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The Aeronauts
8.3 stars - Dawn Trujillo

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